Welcome to Islamic Quotes, We post daily here Islamic Quotes, Islamic Thoughts, SMS Messages, Islamic Stories, References from Important Islamic Books, Nahjul Balagha and Holy Quran, Islamic Wallpapers from Holy Quran, Nahjul Balagha and Other important Islamic books, Real life stories of Prophet Mohammed PBUH, companion, and Masoomeen AS, Hadiths of Prophet Mohammed PBUH and Ramadan Special Mails, Islamic Information ,Islamic articles and Islamic Knowledge
Monday, July 1, 2013
Islamic/Hijri/Muslim Calender and Islamic months
Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar also called
the Hijri calendar is the calendar used to date
events in many predominantly Muslim countries,
and used by Muslims everywhere to determine
the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic
holy days or other Islamic Occasions.
Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is based
on the Glorious Qur'an and its proper observance
is a sacred duty for Muslims.
"Almighty Allah says in the Glorious Qur'an:
The number of months in the sight of Allah is
twelve (in a year) - so ordained by Him the day
He created the heavens and the earth."
(Glorious Qur'an 9:36)
"It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory,
and the moon to be a light of beauty, and measured
out stages for it, that you might know the number of
years and the count of time. Allah did not create this
except in truth and righteousness. And He explains
His signs in detail, for those who understand."
(Glorious Qur'an 10:5)
"They ask thee (O Muhammad) concerning the New Moons.
Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in
(the affairs of) men and for pilgrimage.."
(Glorious Qur'an 2:189)
Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is a lunar calendar having
twelve lunar months in a year, the beginnings and endings of
which are determined by the sighting of the crescent moon
These lunar months (lunations) are based on the motion of
the moon, and because 12 synodic months is only
12 x 29.53=354.36 days.
Therefore the Islamic calendar is consistently about eleven
days shorter than a tropical year or solar year. Islamic holy
days, although celebrated on fixed dates in their own calendar,
usually shift eleven days earlier each successive solar year, such
as a year of the Gregorian calendar or Christian calendar.
Muslims do not adjust their Islamic year by adding an extra month,
as the Jews do to keep their lunar calendar in synch with
Hence the months of the Muslim Islamic year do not relate to
the seasons which are fundamentally related to the solar cycle.
This means that important Muslim festivals, which always fall in
the same Hijri month, may occur in different seasons.
For example, the Hajj and Ramadan can take place in the
summer as well as the winter. It is only over a 33-year cycle
that lunar months take a complete turn and fall during the same
As we already know the Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar
is derived from the phases of the moon, the Fasting month of
Ramadanfalls a little earlier each year. The effect of this is to
balance out the discrepancy between Fasting in the northern
and the southern hemispheres.
It is often thought that in certain parts of the globe the fast will
be easier than in others, for the length of the day, as well as its
temperature, varies from season to season and from land to land.
But Ramadan, creeping forward at a rate of about eleven days in
each solar year, ensures that wherever one may be on the planet,
the fast will fall sometimes in winter and sometimes in summer.
Similarly although in high latitudes the days can be long, there is
no heat. A balance is thus obtained, so that Fasting is similarly
efficacious all over the world.
Although new moons may be calculated quite precisely, the
actual visibility (by a human observer's eye) of the crescent
is much more difficult to predict.
It depends on many factors such as weather, the optical
properties of the atmosphere or atmospheric pollution,
the altitude of the moon at sunset and its closeness,the
quality of the eyesight of the observer, the location of
the observer and etc. It is therefore very difficult to
give accurate information in advance about when a new month will start.
Furthermore, some Muslims depend on a local sighting of
the moon, whereas others depend on a sighting by authorities
somewhere in the Muslim world. Both are valid Islamic practices,
but they may lead to different starting days for the months.
Islamic years are called as Hijra (Hijrah) years, these Hijra
(Hijrah) years are counted since the Hijra (Hijrah), which
is when theProphet Muhammad (pbuh)migrated from
Makkah to Madina (formerly known as Yathrib) approximately
July 622 CE. Thus each numbered year is designated either H
or AH, the latter being the initials of the Latin Anno Hegirae
(in the year of the Hijra).
Hijra (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is an important
turning point for the Muslim community. After the emigration,
the Muslims were able to organize and establish the first real
Muslim "community," with social, political, and economic
independence. Life in Madina allowed the Muslim community to mature and strengthen, and the people developed
an entire society based on Islamic principles.
It is indeed, a unique occasion to ponder that the Islamic Era did not
start with the victories of Islamic wars, nor with the birth or death of
the prophet (pbuh), nor with the Revelation itself. It starts with Hijra,
or the sacrifice for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the
Revelation. It was a divinely inspired selection. Allah wanted to teach
man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal.
The Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp and
glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them to do the same.
Hence, Muslims do not traditionally "celebrate" the beginning of a new year, but we do acknowledge the passing of time, and take time to reflect on our own mortality. The Islamic year begins on the first day of Muharram
with the remembrance of great sacrifice of Imam Hussain (pbuh),
the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) on the land of Karbala
for the sake of Truth.
The Islamic (Hijri) year consists of twelve (purely lunar) months:
First Month of Islamic calendar: Muharram al-Haram
Second Month of Islamic calendar: Safar al-Muzaffar
Third Month of Islamic calendar: Rabi al-Awwal
Fourth Month of Islamic calendar: Rabi al-Thani
Fifth Month of Islamic calendar: Jumada al-Awwal
Sixth Month of Islamic calendar: Jumada al-Thani
Seventh Month of Islamic calendar: Rajab al-Murajab
Eighth Month of Islamic calendar: Sha'ban al-Moazzam
Ninth Month of Islamic calendar: Ramadan al-Mubarak
Tenth Month of Islamic calendar: Shawwal al-Mukarram